April 20, 2014

In The Desert, You Can Remember Your Name

Lent 2012: A Journey through the Wilderness
In the Desert, You Can Remember Your Name

In a tradition dating from at least as far back as the 7th century, Irish religious practice acknowledged a division of three martyrdoms: the red, the white, and the green.  Drawing from the established tradition of the Church about the red martyrdom (the martyrdom of blood, where the saints died in the Roman and other persecutions) and the white martyrdom (which came about after Christianity was tolerated and established; so the tradition of the Desert Fathers in withdrawing into deserts or waste places to live a life of isolation and ascetic practice was established; it was later modified to incorporate the peregrinatio pro Christi or “wandering for Christ” when a person would give up all he knew and loved and leave behind home and family to wander abroad, half-pilgrim, half-missionary), the Irish included a third practice: what was known as “green” (or, depending on how the word glas is translated, “blue” or even “gray”) martyrdom.

The Irish had little or no chance of suffering the red martyrdom since there were no persecutions for the sake of the Faith, even in depictions of conflicts between Christian missionaries such as St. Patrick and the native religious tradition as represented by the Druids.  This is demonstrated in what the 12th century Norman-Welsh chronicler Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of Wales) records in his “The Topography of Ireland” under the heading “A sarcastic reply of the Archbishop of Cashel”, when Gerald (acting as an apologist for the Norman invasion of Ireland under the pretext that they were fulfilling the will of the Pope in reforming the Irish church) reproached the native Irishman that no Irish saint had ever been martyred for the faith in Ireland :

I once made objections of this kind to Maurice, archbishop of Cashel, a discreet and learned man, in the presence of Gerald, a clerk of the Roman church who formerly came as legate into those parts; and throwing the blame of the enormous delinquencies of this country principally on the prelates, I drew a powerful example from the fact that no one in that kingdom had ever obtained the crown of martyrdom for the church of God.  Upon this the archbishop replied sarcastically, avoiding the point of my proposition, and answering it by a home-thrust: “It is true,” he said, “that although our nation may seem barbarous, uncivilized and cruel, they have always shewn great honour and reverence to ecclesiastics, and never on any occasion raised their hands against God’s saints.  But there is now come into our land a people who know how to make martyrs, and have frequently done it.  Henceforth Ireland will have its martyrs, as well as other countries.

Since we also suffer from a lack of deserts, it was also very difficult for any Irish religious to emulate the Egyptian Desert Fathers and Mothers in the white martyrdom; attempts such as Skellig Michael are as close as we came.  Instead, the Irish preferred to go into exile, as with St. Columcille who left Ireland for Scotland and Iona, or the monks who spread out throughout Europe between the 8th-13th centuries such as St. Columbanus, St. Gall, St. Aidan, St. Fursey, St. Fergal (Virgil), St. Fiachra (Fiacre) and their disciples, and many others.

But the third and most important for the native Irish church was the establishment of monastic settlements and hermitages in Ireland herself.  This was a means of having the “desert in the world”, so to speak; to practice withdrawal from everyday life while still being in the midst of everyday life.  This had precedent in how monasticism developed in Egypt during and after the 4th century, where the emphasis changed from solitary individuals living as hermits to small groups living communally, and how it developed in Europe under the influence of the Rule of St. Benedict.  The pattern is similar in so many ways; a holy man or woman seeks to live a solitary life but attracts the attention of both laypeople and other religious, who seek to live under the rule of that person, who attempts to flee to a more solitary place but attracts yet more attention and ends up founding or being the inspiration for a community.

We see this pattern with St. Kevin of Glendalough and the saints known as the “Twelve Apostles of Ireland” who include the likes of St. Ciaran of Clonmacnoise, St. Brendan of Clonfert, the 5th century saint famous for his voyage in which he may have discovered America long before Columbus, and St. Canice, whose monastic foundation eventually became the city of Kilkenny.

Because Ireland was on the periphery of Europe, it held onto the older tradition of doing things, so unlike Western Europe where the diocese was the unit of local church governance and the bishop the leader, under the influence of early European and (allegedly) Egyptian monasticism, the church was centered around the monastery and the abbot.  This also tied in with the tribal, rural (instead of urbanized) way of life in Ireland, so that noble and ruling families were interwoven with monastic life (for example, St. Columcille as a princely scion of a northern royal dynasty) and rule.  Irish monasticism also emphasized ascetic practice, which gave a particular flavor to the Irish church (even in the 19th century, we tended towards Jansenism as our specific flaw), as seen in the popular folk pilgrimages to Lough Derg (three days of fasting and walking barefoot over rock in the rain and cold while praying continuously) and climbing the Holy Mountain, Croagh Patrick (again, the hardcore do this barefoot)..  However, the flip side to that was the engagement with nature, as seen in the poetry associated with early Christian Ireland, from the one we all learned in school “Pangur Bán” (a 9th century poem by an Irish monk about his cat) to St Patrick’s Breastplate  to the 8th century anonymous verse as translated by Brendan Kenneally:

 Only a fool would fail

To praise God in His might

When the tiny mindless birds

Praise Him in their flight.

So what has all this historical trivia to do with Lent today?  Well, we may not be able to retreat to a desert or the top of a mountain to be apart with God, but we can emulate the spirit of the green martyrdom during Lent; to be apart from and within the world at the same time, to have the desert in the world.  We may not adhere nowadays to such severe practices of old as the “Black Fast” (in my grandmother’s time, no dairy products or meat allowed, so that the two collations [less than full or main meal] of unsweetened black tea and dry bread were the rule, and this was softened down from the even more severe fasting of previous centuries as detailed here).

Lent is more than a time to give up chocolate or – the perennial favorite in Ireland – alcohol for Lent (and some diehards still do the mini-fast of giving up drink in November, the Month of the Holy Souls).  It’s not a way of going on a diet or giving up bad health habits, as it has tended to become in recent times.  It’s not even about gaining religious merit points so as to buy God’s favor.  Lent is a time of training the will, and why this is important is because some people even deny that there exists such a thing as the will, as in this recent article in USAToday by one Jerry Coyne, a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution at The University of Chicago: Forget not even having a soul, you don’t even have a material will!  In fact, there isn’t even a “you” in the first place; personality is just an illusion:

Perhaps you’ve chosen to read this essay after scanning other articles on this website.  Or, if you’re in a hotel, maybe you’ve decided what to order for breakfast, or what clothes you’ll wear today.

You haven’t.  You may feel like you’ve made choices, but in reality your decision to read this piece, and whether to have eggs or pancakes, was determined long before you were aware of it — perhaps even before you woke up today.  And your “will” had no part in that decision.  So it is with all of our other choices: not one of them results from a free and conscious decision on our part.  There is no freedom of choice, no free will.  And those New Year’s resolutions you made?  You had no choice about making them, and you’ll have no choice about whether you keep them.

… Psychologists and neuroscientists are also showing that the experience of will itself could be an illusion that evolution has given us to connect our thoughts, which stem from unconscious processes, and our actions, which also stem from unconscious process.  We think this because our sense of “willing” an act can be changed, created, or even eliminated through brain stimulation, mental illness, or psychological experiments.  The ineluctable scientific conclusion is that although we feel that we’re characters in the play of our lives, rewriting our parts as we go along, in reality we’re puppets performing scripted parts written by the laws of physics.

So Lent denies this view of the human creature; we’re not a collection of molecules running in the tracks pre-determined for us from the very moment the universe came into existence by the physical laws which were established then, with no more choice about what we do than a puppet has about its strings being pulled.  Whether we spend our days feeding the sick and instructing the ignorant, or robbing banks and murdering our criminal rivals, we are neither to be praised or blamed because we do not make those choices.

Lent says “Yes, you do have a choice.  You do have a will.  Here is where you exercise it, like any other muscle.  And you are not alone in a causeless, random, uncaring universe.  There is one who has gone before you.  And matter is not a blind whirl of atoms in motion for no reason at all, piling up and breaking down through mechanical forces – it is a creation, and its Creator has declared that it is very good.”

And why is it so important to train the will?  Because, as Professor Coyne’s article shows (though not in the way he might have meant it), if the reason cannot operate by means of the will, then how can it operate?  How can it mediate our appetites?  Are we to be reduced to what C.S. Lewis called “Men without Chests”?:

The head rules the belly through the chest — the seat, as Alanus tells us, of Magnanimity, of emotions organized by trained habit into stable sentiments.  The Chest-Magnanimity-Sentiment — these are the indispensable liaison officers between cerebral man and visceral man.  It may even be said that it is by this middle element that man is man: for by his intellect he is mere spirit and by his appetite mere animal.

We sacrifice something during Lent – not because the things of creation are bad or evil or worthless.  In all cultures, sacrifice is given to the gods from that which is good and desirable and valuable.  We too sacrifice that which is good, voluntarily, of our own free will.  The things we give up are good, but we voluntarily renounce the licit use of them.  Alcohol or chocolate or television or music or steak or new shoes or a new hairdo are not bad things or vanities, though they can be misused and abused.  So in giving them up, we sacrifice not the things themselves, but our wills.  It is our wills that are free and that can freely choose to make good use – or bad – of the gifts we have been given in creation.

And just as every culture gives sacrifice to its gods, so every culture develops different ways of renouncing and paring down in order to achieve a noble end, whether it be the Stoicism of the Greeks and of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, or Boethius writing his “Consolation of Philosophy” while imprisoned for treason, or Confucius developing his ethical and philosophical system based on social obligations and right relations, or the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism:

1. Life means suffering.

2. The origin of suffering is attachment.

3. The cessation of suffering is attainable.

4. The path to the cessation of suffering.

Christianity does not solve the problem of suffering in the same manner of attaining detachment, because we believe so passionately in the existence of the individual self that we even have the doctrine of Hell, where Man can defy his Creator to the extent that he can refuse all love and grace and separate himself for all eternity from their Source by his own choices and deeds.  Now, indeed, the sacrifices and privations of Lent can be a matter of rote, of habit, of just doing the same old thing as we always did (we gave up chocolate when we were children and we couldn’t wait for Easter to come so we could gorge on Easter eggs; we give up cigarettes for our health or cut back on drink or give up sugar, and then go back to our old habits once Holy Saturday comes around, without using the time of Lent to deepen our spiritual life or do any walking in the desert with Christ at all).

What do we base Lent on?  Since Lent comes before Easter, we base it on waiting for the One who has come, who has gone before us, and who has promised to come again.  We base it on our forefathers in the faith, who followed the call out of Egypt into the desert.  The forty days of the Lenten fast are deliberately related to the forty days Jesus fasted in the desert, led there by the Holy Spirit after His baptism, and the forty years the people of Israel wandered in the wilderness under the wrath of the Lord.

We, too, are under the wrath of God for our sins, so Lent is a time of penitence and repentance and penance.  We will not see the promised redemption until the Redeemer comes and until the “Old Adam” has been slain in our flesh, until we have died to our own desires, until we have died in baptism with Christ.

So we must come to a realisation for ourselves as to what Lent is for and what it is about.  Why did the Spirit lead Christ into the desert?  We have several instances of Him going aside to pray in quiet places, but His disciples were with Him and He did not go off for days alone into the desert.  And immediately after the baptism in the Jordan, when God the Father had manifested His favour and declared the Sonship of Christ by the descent of God the Holy Spirit?  So this was no ordinary withdrawal – Jesus did not need to go into the desert, any more than He needed to be baptized.  But just as He did this for our sake – “But Jesus answered him, “Let it be so now, for thus it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness.” – so must He have gone into the desert also for our sake.  If we are to be baptized with Jesus, then what are we to do in the desert?

So what happens after the period of prayer and fasting and purification?  Another vision of God?  A greater mark of Divine approval?  No, but the temptation, when the Devil comes and asks for signs and promises to grant favours.  Therefore, Lent is boot camp for spiritual warfare.  As Fr. Zuhlsdorf  translates the Collect for Ash Wednesday from the old rites:

COLLECT:

Concede nobis, Domine, praesidia militiae christianae

sanctis inchoare ieiuniis,

ut, contra spiritales nequitias pugnaturi,

continentiae muniamur auxiliis.

LITERAL RENDERING:

Grant us, O Lord, to commence the defenses of the Christian field campaign by means of holy fasts, so that, we who are about to do battle against spiritual negligences, may be fortified by the support of continence.

Lent is the time when we train and mortify our wills and our bodies, not to rachet up gold stars in a spiritual achievement chart, but to demonstrate for ourselves how our wills are weak and how much, how badly, we need the grace of God.  Because we may sail into Ash Wednesday with great intentions, but by Friday we are flagging, and we start counting down the days and going “Thirty-nine more like this?” and finding out just how enslaved we are to our appetites.  And through Lent, we find ourselves in the desert while in the world; like the song by America from which the title of this post is taken, “Horse with No Name”, says:

You see I’ve been through the desert on a horse with no name

It felt good to be out of the rain

In the desert you can remember your name

‘Cause there ain’t no one for to give you no pain

We can remember the name we were given in baptism when we died with Christ, as we train our wills and our hearts in the good habits of virtue while in the desert, so that when we come out into Holy Week, we too are ready to face the subtle temptations of the Devil.

Comments

  1. Thank you, Martha, for this wonderful devotional piece.

  2. “We can remember the name we were given in baptism when we died with Christ…”

    Perfect!

    ( I think I’ll stop right there)

  3. Thank you both and glad this piece helped.

    Now that the notion strikes me, Abraham and Isaac are also a type of Lent; when Abraham was climbing that mountain with his son, knowing what was going to happen at the top – was not that a Lent of the soul, too, a hard journey to sacrifice that which was most precious to him?

    And the totally unexpected at the summit, just when he was sure this was the absolute end of it all – from death to life for Isaac and for Abraham too, and a foreshadowing of the lamb of God who will die in our place so that we also have the shock of newly returned life, of the new life.

  4. Martha,

    Thanks for another wonderful piece! I’m reminded of a great G. K. Chesterton quote from “The Ball and the Cross”:

    “We leave you saying that nobody ought to join the Church against his will. When we meet you again you are saying that nobody has any will to join it with. We leave you saying there is no such place as Eden. We find you saying that there is no such place as Ireland. You start by hating the irrational, and you come to hate everything, for everything is irrational…”

    Lent truly is a powerful witness to that most irrational of beliefs: that we are made in God’s own image, but are also in desperate need of His grace.

    Ryan

    • Headless Unicorn Guy says:

      And don’t forget Fr Brown/Chesterton’s rebuttal to his era’s Professor Coynes in “Doom of the Darnaways”.

  5. Headless Unicorn Guy says:

    So Lent denies this view of the human creature; we’re not a collection of molecules running in the tracks pre-determined for us from the very moment the universe came into existence by the physical laws which were established then, with no more choice about what we do than a puppet has about its strings being pulled. Whether we spend our days feeding the sick and instructing the ignorant, or robbing banks and murdering our criminal rivals, we are neither to be praised or blamed because we do not make those choices.

    i.e Utter Predestination for Brights.

    Matter in Motion Akbar Matter in Motion Akbar Matter in Motion Akbar…

  6. This reminds me of a lecture I heard awhile back by James K.A. Smith called “Culture as Liturgy” – it’s very similar to what you’re saying Martha, definitely worth a listen! It’s available online and can be found by a quick google search. He’s speaking to a Protestant group, so you’d at least get a kick out of all the caveats he has to put in his speech so that he can even bring up the word “liturgy”!

  7. David Cornwell says:

    My will just instructed me to check that little box “prove YOU ARE human.” Being created in the likeness of God we are far more than just mechanistic collections of molecules running about some pre-appointed tasks to no purpose under the universe, other than maybe eventual self and universal destruction. Surrendering (an act of the will?) to evil and listening to the lie that we are not responsible may be under some molecular pressure, but it may just be the devil telling us that we have everything to gain.

    • This whole series on Lent and the wilderness is certainly making some interesting connections in the mess that is the inside of my head.

      I’m now reminded of Isaiah 35 about “the desert shall rejoice and shall blossom as the rose”, and I have to go with the King James Version here because, between jackals and dragons, though jackals may be more accurate translation, dragons is just so much cooler :-)

      “6 Then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing: for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert.

      7 And the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water: in the habitation of dragons, where each lay, shall be grass with reeds and rushes.”

      We go through Lent and Holy Week on out to Easter, like passing through the desert and then seeing it transformed with springs and flowers, and all the dragons of our nature vanquished.

  8. Florian says:

    We can’t let ourselves forget that a lot of Irish people were withdrawn from society involuntarily–the Catholic Church imprisoned people (e.g. girls thought to have loose morals) for life under the guise of monasticism / nunnism. We celebrate the fall of Communism, but the Catholicism is one of those zombie religions that never dies, but just grows more and more decrepid.

    • I’m afraid I can’t address those points, Florian, as the pre-programmed script has not been downloaded into my mind-control chip due to some problem with the orbital control satellite. As soon as the Secret Vatican Space Programme (Motto: “Run by Jesuits ad majorem Dei gloriam and In Slavish Obedience to the Pope”) has it up and running again, I’m sure I can answer any questions you may have.

      • Florian says:

        Oh, I don’t believe for a minute that you have been brainwashed, Martha. Let me ask you a question: Why would a Catholic pay so much attention to what a small group of evangelical Christians say? You post here almost every day–why? It would be one thing if you were questioning your faith, but no, your goal is to change ours, or failing that, to overwhelm us with Catholic minutia to the point that we get used to your presence, and come to accept your church as legitimate (which it assuredly is not). Get thee behind me, thou Jezebel!

        • Elizabeth says:

          Or….maybe she fellowhships with us here because she is a sister-in-Christ and we have much, much more in common than seperate us and much to learn from each other. I’m so protestant that my great grandfathers were Baptist ministers before the American Revolution and I find your words devisive, uncalled for and ugly.

          While I hold strong to my protestant beliefs, I have read and studied andknow that there is so much beauty and truth to be learned from the practices of the ancient Irish/Celtic church and I thank you Martha for sharing your wisdom and heart with us here.

        • Why do I post here almost every day? Because I have an incurable big mouth, and I can’t help giving my opinion on everything under the sun, regardless of whether or not it’s appropriate. Times have been (and doubtless will be in future) when I’ve said “Why didn’t I keep my trap shut in that situation?”

          Now, if you can pray for me to be released from the vanity and insecurity of seeking for attention by this compulsion to display my ignorance in public, I will be truly and genuinely grateful, Florian.

          Jezebel? Now, that’s just flattery!

        • Headless Unicorn Guy says:

          Why would a Catholic pay so much attention to what a small group of evangelical Christians say?

          Because I’m a Fundagelical casualty like Eagle. As are a lot of us here. In case you haven’t looked at the header of this blog, it says “POST-Evangelical Wilderness”.

          Eagle is partially right. The type of Evangelical Christianity we experienced (and that you show all the symptoms of) IS a cancer. It almost destroyed us in the Name of God, Christ, and Scripture (TM). After going over the wall for our own survival, you think we’re going to joyfully walk back into that Cosmic North Korea?

        • Danielle79 says:

          Why wouldn’t Martha post here? She’s far from the only Catholic that does, either.

          I for one enjoy the cross-denominational conversations here. But then again, as someone who at this point identifies more strongly with Anglicanism or Lutheranism than with most low-church American movements, I’m also somewhat closer to her viewpoints, than to yours. So naturally I’m only writing this post because I am in league with Jesuits. That is, when I’m not plotting with the Mainline Liberals to establish the one-world rule of the anti-Christ. Keeps me up all night, arranging that one…

          • Keep looking the other way while I creep up behind you with this big net labelled “Parcel post to Nunnery immediately”, Danielle ;-)

          • Danielle79 says:

            I see. You’ve received word. I will look the part, being all rotund and pregnant. So they’re sure to lock me up. And there, reared by Catholic nuns and one liberal Protestant, my son will rise to rule his future world empire!

          • Headless Unicorn Guy says:

            IA! IA! NIMROD!
            IA! IA! SEMIRAMIS!
            IA! IA! TAMMUZ!
            CTHULHU FTHAGN!

    • Danielle says:

      You made a rather impressive flying leap, to get form your first assertion to your second…

      Was there much decrepit in the article above? There’s still plenty of kick left, it seems.

      • Headless Unicorn Guy says:

        It’s called Demonstrated Staying Power.

        Remember who ended up with Crystal Cathedral after the Schuller Inheritance Fight.

        • At least the architecture of the Crystal Cathedral is a lot better than modern church architecture; I am really glad the bishop of the diocese decided to buy secondhand rather than get the planners in for a new building – can you imagine the concrete bunker style abomination they would have come up with?

          Though I must admit, I’m dying to see the place after it’s been re-purposed as a Catholic church. Oh, and they had a competition for new name suggestions for the cathedral, which is now closed (unfortunately) but if anyone can suggest something both Christological (which is what they were looking for) and to do with the building, please do so now!

          I thought “Christ, the Sun of Angels” might work – or name in honour of St. Mark, who is patron saint of glaziers (I think because of the Venetian connection) :-)

          • Headless Unicorn Guy says:

            I’m from Los Angeles. Remember the Archdiocesan Cathedral here with “Popeye Mary”?

  9. Beautiful article, Martha. Over the last week I’ve gotten too bound up by the Catholic Church controveries here in the United States (who should get communion and whether the Church should be exempt from paying for contraception). I need to stop worrying. I need to get back to Lent–back to the desert. Thanks.